This guide provides insight into the key principles regarding gender equality and discrimination on the grounds of sex, as developed by the European Court of Human Rights. In Part One, the authors provide a high-level synthesis of the jurisprudence of the Court on the issue of gender equality and discrimination on grounds of sex. The synthesis is divided into thematic topics, including discrimination on the grounds of sex in relation to: gender-based violence, respect for private and family life, employment, Roma woman, refugees and asylum-seekers. The Guide covers gender stereotyping in legal judgments and discrimination in the course of judicial proceedings. The Guide also touches on related grounds of discrimination, such as disability, sexual orientation, ethnicity and transgender rights, but only insofar as these issues intersect with discrimination against women. Also, this Guide includes an overview of the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on women´s rights in the Western Balkans. Part two of this Guide summarises a number of key cases amongst the Court´s jurisprudence on gender discrimination.